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哀悼失落的純真—李永平小說(1968-2012)研究

Mourning the Lost Innocence-a Study on Li Yongping’s Novels(1968-2012)

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【作者】 王淼

【導師】 黃也平

【作者基本信息】 吉林大學, 文藝學, 2013, 碩士

【摘要】 李永平(1947-)是在臺馬華作家的代表人物,2012年三月他的小說《大河盡頭上卷∕溯流》《大河盡頭下卷∕山》在內地出版,引發了內地讀者更多的關注和了解。李永平的作品在整個華語文學創作中顯示出了獨特的審美風格、書寫議題和寫作方式,其離散流寓的創作身份和多元文化混雜的人文背景對他進行小說建構提供了創作的原動力。那么如何解讀李永平的小說呢?李永平的寫作對當今華語文學的創作和評論提出了什么問題呢?本文擬從“哀悼失落的純真”這一角度出發,由“哀悼”和“純真”兩個關鍵詞作為對小說提問的方式,探討李永平的小說寫作在創作論和文本主題的呈現等方面所達到的深度。論文圍繞“‘純真性’是什么?小說中如何呈現純真?純真有何意義?純真如何失落?純真失落之后引發的精神創傷有什么,又該如何彌補呢?”這一主線展開論述。小說在體現純真這個向度上有三個方面的表現,純化女性,純化愛情,純化文字。第三章處理純真的意義,《海東青》、《朱鴒》的色情臺北揭示了原初的女性純真已經岌岌可危,甚至女性的純真本身成為了殖民/被殖民處境下資本邏輯制作的人工景觀,因此女性的純真緊緊地維系在被殖民地/原鄉母親的純真之上。如此,李永平對純真的訴求是其原鄉欲望的焦慮點,從其本身漂泊遷移的身世歷程,我們發現了他與“原鄉”的齟齬,他自身的純真面臨著被否定的身份危機。而在文本中,就是家庭對于子嗣純/真度的要求,這也就造成了游子與家的雙向背離。李永平用文字奇觀構筑了一個“紙上原鄉”,來安頓自己對于原鄉的欲望,原鄉的欲望轉化為文字書寫的欲望,純真的訴求轉化為再純真的渴望。第四章我詳細分析了小說中女性純真是如何失落的。在這一過程中,惡魔/污穢如何由外而內地摧毀了父法、摧毀了母愛、最后摧毀了人子。基于人性罪惡之上的殖民罪惡,如何把家園變成游子不愿面對的廢墟。第五章把純真失落造成的創傷與羅蘭·巴特的刺點理論相結合,認為小說中陰魂不散的女鬼/復仇的惡魔形象是創傷在文本層面的表征,是小說的刺點所在。第六章則探討李永平的小說是如何完成對創傷的療治的,一方面,主人公始終是在流浪、漫游、朝圣,而文本漫游體/朝圣體的結構形式凸顯了對于失落的純真的找尋,也在這個過程中展開了對元兇/男性的復仇;一方面小說通過多次對同一個故事的講述、改寫,深入挖掘了歷史背后的罪與罰,顯示出銘記罪惡以為誡、阻止罪惡繼續、滌蕩罪孽的拯救意圖;最后,文本以哀悼的儀式對失落的純真表達了情感的慰藉,流行歌曲/民謠唱出了被遮蔽的女性之苦,也在寂寞的時刻撫慰她們創傷的靈魂。在民歌之中,人子與人母達成了相互的溝通與諒解。最終,游子和苦難的母親戰勝了死亡的陰影和生存的嚴苛,通過再生儀式撫平了歷史的瘡疤,返歸純真的世界。

【Abstract】 Li Yongping (1947-) is the representative of Malaysian Chinese writers inTaiwan. In March of2012, his novels “at the end of the river on volume/upstream”and “at the end of the river under volume/Mountain”published in the Mainland, hadcaused great concern of mainland readers. Li Yongping’s works in the entire Chineseliterary creation show a unique aesthetic taste in writing topics and writing style. Hisdiscrete identity and multicultural mixed cultural background is undoubtedly a drivingforce to the creation of novel construction.Then how to interpret Li Yongping’s novels? What problem can Li Yongping putforward to the writing on the creation of today’s Chinese literature and comments?This article embarks from this view——" mourning the lost innocence ", andquestions to study what depth Li Yongping’s novels have reached in creation and texttheme by the " mourning " and " innocence " two key words.This paper discusses on the main line that "what is ’ innocence ’? How do Li’sNovels present the innocence and what is the meaning of the innocence? How did theinnocence get lost? What trauma caused after the Innocence lost and how to make upfor it?" The novel embodies innocence on three aspects: purification of women,purification of love, and purification of text. The third chapter deals with innocencesignificance. The porn Taipei in " Hai Dong Qing "," Zhu Ling " reveals that theoriginal female innocence has been already in jeopardy, and even women’s innocenceitself become a colonial/artificial landscape producted under the capital logic and thecolonial situation, so the female innocence maintained tightly on the colonial/Hometown mother’s innocence. From his life experience, we found the discordbetween his "hometown" and himself, which cause an identity crisis that his owninnocence is facing negated. In the text, that is the pure and real requirement from thefamily to their children, and that is two-way deviation between the wanderer and hisfamily. The utopia text of Li Yongping build a "hometown only on paper ", in whichhe settle his own desire for hometown.The hometown desire becomes into the desire of writing hometown and then into the aspirations of turning back to innocence. Inchapter4, I analyzed how the innocence of the women lost in the novel, and in thisprocess, how evil filth/mainland destroyed a mother’s love, finally destroyed the sonof man,and how to turn the hometown to the ruins which the wanderer don’t want toface based on colonial evil. In chapter V I combine the trauma which caused byinnocence lost with Roland Barthes’s “PUNCTUM” theory.Here I think the demonimage of lingering ghost/revenge in the the text is the characterization of the traumatext, and that is just the“PUNCTUM” of his novels. In chapter VI,I explore that howLi Yongping’s novels completed a treatment for the trauma: on one hand, the hero isalways in stray, roaming and pilgrimage to find the lost innocence and also carried outrevenge on the culprit/male in this process which is highlighted by the Roamingbody/pilgrimage body structure;on the other hand, the novel tells the same storyseveral times, rewritten to dig deeper into the history behind the crime andpunishment——all these mean that Li Yongping want to bearing in mind, stop the evil,and wash away all sins. At the end of this paper, the texts use mourning ceremony oflost innocence to expresse emotional solace: pop/ballads songs sing what the themasked women suffering, and soothe their trauma soul in the lonely moments as well.The wandering son and his suffering mother reached a mutual communication andunderstanding in the music. Eventually, they adopt renewable ceremony to overcomethe shadow of death and survive in the harsh environment and also to heal thehistorical scar, return to the pure world.

【關鍵詞】 李永平小說研究純真哀悼
【Key words】 Li Yongpingnovel researchinnocencemourning
  • 【網絡出版投稿人】 吉林大學
  • 【網絡出版年期】2013年 09期
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