An Examination of Mural Paintings of Visualizing Monks in Toyok Cave 42: in Conjunction with the Origin of Some Chinese Texts on Meditation
【Abstract】 Toyok cave 42 contains wall paintings of visualizing monks that seem to be associated with Chinese texts on meditation. The wall paintings accord with descriptions of meditation in the texts to a certain extent and corresponding depictions can be matched for some paired scenes, though the overall layout of these scenes is inconsistent with those found in texts available today. Therefore, the wall paintings are not necessarily based on a single sutra but likely come from local meditation traditions; indeed, the text the wall paintings are based on may have originated from Turfan. This explanation could provide key information on the origins of the Amitayus Visualization Sutra which has been in endless dispute.